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Preface: The references below span wide levels of technical depth. Some are written for the general public while others are for specialists.  

The numeric values of parameters cited on the UFT-Machine’s pages, and the tolerances of those values, are derived from references below and other scientific papers, books and web articles authored by physicists and cosmologists. The Machine showcases six constants on the main tuning page. 


Luke A. Barnes, The Fine-Tuning of Nature’s Laws, The New Atlantis Journal of Technology and Society, Number 47, Fall 2015
    A good summary article on the principles of fine-tuning.

John D. Barrow and Frank J. Tipler, The Anthropic Cosmological Principle, 1986
  A broad-ranging coverage of physics and cosmology and their relationship to the existence of intelligent observers and the fundamental structure of the Universe.

Sir Martin Rees, Just Six Numbers: The Deep Forces That Shape the Universe, 2001
  The genesis of the universe elegantly explained based on just six numbers by a celebrated astrophysicist. Very readable.

Brandon Carter, Professor, University of Cambridge, Large number coincidences and the anthropic principle in cosmology, 1974
    Carter is one of the first to invoke the anthropic principle.

Luke A. Barnes, Astrophysicist, The Fine-Tuning of the Universe for Intelligent Life, 2012 
    A review of the scientific literature, outlining cases of fine-tuning in the classic works of Carter, Carr and Rees, and Barrow and Tipler, as well as more recent works. This is a deep article full of insights on the marvels of fine-tuning.

Ulf-G Meißner, Professor, Anthropic considerations in nuclear physics  
    The article discusses certain fine-tunings in nuclear physics that are needed for the formation of life-relevant elements in the Big Bang and in stars.

Victor J. Stenger, Professor, The Fallacy of Fine-Tuning: Why the Universe Is Not Designed for Us, 2011
    Counter arguments against the phenomenon of fine-tuning are outlined. See Quotes and its



Geraint F. Lewis, Luke A. Barnes, A Fortunate Universe: Life in a Finely Tuned Cosmos, 2016
    A discussion, defense and critique of the various arguments around what fine-tuning might mean for the search for the ultimate laws of nature. Coupled with the book is a short video overview on the wonders of fine-tuning.

Max Tegmark, Professor MIT, Our Mathematical Universe: My Quest for the Ultimate Nature of Reality, 2014
  Nobel-laureate physicist Eugene Wigner regarded the power of mathematics to explain the cosmos as a baffling mystery. Tegmark offers a resolution of that mystery, arguing that mathematics describes the universe so well because the universe ultimately “is mathematics.”


Adam Becker, What Is Real?: The Unfinished Quest for the Meaning of Quantum Physics, 2018
    An overview of the debates surrounding the interpretation of quantum mechanics.


Stephen Hawking, A Brief History of Time, 1988
    Hawking writes in non-technical terms about the structure, origin, and development of the universe.


Paul C. W. Davies, Professor, The Accidental Universe, 1982
    A guide through the mysterious coincidences underlying the structure and properties of the universe we inhabit.


Brian Greene, Professor, Why is our universe fine-tuned for life? TED Talk, 2012
    Why does our universe appear so exquisitely tuned to create the conditions necessary for life?


Bernard L. Cohen, Understanding the Fine Tuning in Our Universe, The Physics Teacher 46, 285, 2008
    Discussion on the critical processes of hydrogen burning and helium burning


Tamara Davis, Brendan Griffen, Cosmological Constant,
    The cosmological constant was originally introduced by Einstein in 1917 as a repulsive force required to keep the Universe in static equilibrium. It requires extreme fine-tuning for our universe to exist as it does.

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